APTITUDE TESTS: - contains mainly 4 type of tests namely
- 1. GATB (Generalised aptitude test) - can be used to determine appropriate career and/or training paths. It measures nine distinct aptitudes using 12 separate tests (eight pencil and paper tests and four performance tests)
- 2. EPPS (Edwards personal preference schedule) - can be used for personal counselling, recruitment, research and many other purposes.
- 3. SHI (Study habit inventory) - used to find out what study habits you have developed at particular stage of your life. It can help students develop better and more productive ways to study and help teachers do a better job of teaching.
- 4. INTEREST RECORD – it describes why the person tend to favour some situation and react to them in a very selective manner. It is important in making decisions about courses of studies and jobs.
- 1. Children Apperception Test (CAT) - is a projective personality test used to assess variations in children’s responses to standardized stimuli presented in the form of pictures of animals or humans in common social situations. The purpose is to assess personality, level of maturity and psychological health.
- 2. Neuropsychological Test- used to measure a psychological function linked with a particular brain structure or pathways. They are designed to examine a variety of cognitive abilities including speed of information processing, attention, memory, language and executive functions necessary for goal-directed behaviour. It is an important component of the assessment and treatment of traumatic brain injury, dementia, neurological conditions, some psychiatric disorders, effects of toxic substances and medical conditions on brain functioning.
Intelligence- a very general mental capability that involves ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience.
Memory- from a clinical point of view, 5 distinct types of memories are there. Semantic memory and episodic memory (collectively called declarative memory or explicit memory), procedural memory and priming or perceptual learning (collectively called non-declarative memory or implicit memory) all four of them are long term memory systems and fifth is working memory or short term memory. Semantic memory is memory for facts, episodic memory is autobiographical memory, procedural memory is memory for the performance of skills, priming is memory facilitated by prior exposure to a stimulus. Working memory is a short term memory for information manipulation.
Language- include speech, reading and writing, all of which can be selectively impaired.
Executive function- include problem solving, planning, organizational skills, selective attention, inhibitory control and some aspects of short term memory.
Visuospatial- includes areas of visual perception, visual construction and visual integration
Dementia specific- includes various tests for testing cognitive abilities.
Various neuropsychological tests
- i. Wechsler memory scale
- ii. PGI memory scale
- iii. Bender gestalt test
- iv. PGI battery of brain dysfunction
- v. Luria-Nebraska
- vi. Dementia rating scale
3. Personality Test- personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that makes a person unique. It arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout the life. A personality test is a questionnaire or other standardized instrument designed to reveal aspects of an individual’s character or psychological makeup. We are using 2 types of tests:-
- i. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)
- ii. 16 personality factor (16 PF)
4. Projective Test- is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts.
- i. Rorschach ink-blot test:- used to analyse personality and emotional functioning. In this test, person’s perception of inkblots are recorded and then analysed using psychological interpretation. In which, detect underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly. Actually, this test was originally meant to produce a profile of people with schizophrenia based upon score frequencies.
- ii. Thematic apperception test:- is a projective test where in a client is instructed to form stories from pictures depicted on cards. It is used to assess dominant drives, emotions, sentiments, complexes and conflicts of personality.
- iii. Draw- A- person test
- iv. Sentence completion test
- v. Children Apperception Test (CAT):- used for problems of feeding and other oral activity, sibling rivalry, parent child relations, aggression, toilet training and other childhood experiences.
5. Tests for Intellectual Disability (ID)- MR is a developmental disability that first appears in children under the age of 18. It is defined as a level of intellectual functioning that is well below average and results in significant limitations in the person’s daily living skills. In most cases, it persists throughout the life. It is measured by level of IQ (intelligence quotient).
- i. Stanford- Binet intelligence scale
- ii. Seguin form board
- iii. Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC)
- iv. Bhatia battery of performance tests
- v. Raven’s progressive matrices
6. Tests for adaptive behaviour- adaptive behaviour includes age appropriate behaviours necessary for people to live independently and to function safely and appropriately in daily life. Such behaviours include life skills such as grooming, dressing, safety, food handling, working, money management, cleaning, making friends, social skills and personal responsibility expected of their age and social group.